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Category: Otto Bock

CE marking or norm in relation to components for prosthetic arms

Cite this article:
Wolf Schweitzer: Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - CE marking or norm in relation to components for prosthetic arms; published December 25, 2018, 15:20; URL: https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=7749.

BibTeX: @MISC{schweitzer_wolf_1569169656, author = {Wolf Schweitzer}, title = {{Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - CE marking or norm in relation to components for prosthetic arms}}, month = {December},year = {2018}, url = {https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=7749}}


CE-marking or norm

The CE-marking establishes that a particular item or product conform to European product law in relation to health, safety, and environmental protection standards [link].

As this text is not public or may be hard to get into the public eye, why not just go ahead and drag it out. I started to be interested by the backgrounds of what our prosthetic limbs and their technical documentation ideally could be already a few years ago [link].  So, a few blog posts here do have a long history, longer than others, and were assembled over quite a period of time.

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Case-study of a user-driven prosthetic arm design: bionic hand versus customized body-powered technology in a highly demanding work environment [article out]

Cite this article:
Wolf Schweitzer: Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Case-study of a user-driven prosthetic arm design: bionic hand versus customized body-powered technology in a highly demanding work environment [article out]; published January 4, 2018, 14:29; URL: https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=8066.

BibTeX: @MISC{schweitzer_wolf_1569169656, author = {Wolf Schweitzer}, title = {{Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Case-study of a user-driven prosthetic arm design: bionic hand versus customized body-powered technology in a highly demanding work environment [article out]}}, month = {January},year = {2018}, url = {https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=8066}}


 


This is a blog post of one of the rare focused and well based scientific journal articles that really explains how real work, body powered and myoelectric arms relate and go together for a unilateral right below elbow amputee in a physically demanding work environment.

The prior presentation of this paper [poster at Cybathlon symposium 2016], which had been more pragmatically worded (with me thinking people would know anyway), this was now written up as article and published. During that process, the reviewers clearly made great points of all kinds of aspects I never knew were not sky clear to everyone.

So maybe, writing a ~ 30 page case study with > 210 references does clarify stuff, at least potentially and for those that actually read it. But possibly, it still requires attention to even just read it.

Knowledge does not come easy, Highlander! (Nakano, in: Highlander III The Final Dimension)

 

If you are more interested in visionary posts, read about the gadget features of the prosthetic arm in Kingsmen: The Golden Circle [link]. And technically, myoelectric control did have it coming. That technology remained uncool for four decades [link].

Publication [link]

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Scientific approach taken for implementing a successfully marketable microprocessor-controlled knee - history of Otto Bock C-leg [lessons for prosthetic arms?]

Cite this article:
Wolf Schweitzer: Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Scientific approach taken for implementing a successfully marketable microprocessor-controlled knee - history of Otto Bock C-leg [lessons for prosthetic arms?]; published January 2, 2018, 15:10; URL: https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=7790.

BibTeX: @MISC{schweitzer_wolf_1569169656, author = {Wolf Schweitzer}, title = {{Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Scientific approach taken for implementing a successfully marketable microprocessor-controlled knee - history of Otto Bock C-leg [lessons for prosthetic arms?]}}, month = {January},year = {2018}, url = {https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=7790}}


This blog post takes a few relevant observations, and assumptions, throws them up in the air and sees if they turn into sunshine.

  • If anything has brought us forward, it is also the ability to find relevant short cuts. We do not always have to invent the wheel when really we just want a variation of it.
  • If there is any acutal success story where academic research was required to leverage consumer market for a prosthetic limb, it is that of Otto Bock's C-leg.
  • If we can understand what the concepts are for getting a C-leg successfuly built, marketed and sold, we should be able to take generalized aspects of it to formulate success elements for prosthetic hands, grippers or arms.

Background

While the idea of a microprocessor controlled knee was created earlier [link], no marketable solution was available in due course. "In the early 1990s, Kelly James, an engineer at the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada, developed the C-Leg, the first leg with microprocessor-controlled swing and stance phases. Buying the rights from the university, he traveled around the world to interest prosthetic manufacturers in his invention ("A Leg Up," by Isabelle Gallant, U of A Engineer, Spring 2011). However, he didn't receive any commercial interest until German manufacturer Ottobock bought the patent in 1992 and launched the groundbreaking technology.".

Then, based on work betweeen 1995 and 1998, a doctoral thesis at the ETH Zurich described an intelligently, microprocessor controlled knee for above knee prostheses built from available and affordable materials [1].

That research was performed 1995 to 1998, financially supported by Otto Bock, and Otto Bock presented its first C-Leg in 1997.

The rest is history. If ever there was a leap in performance of prosthetic function, ever, it was the C-Leg. No prosthetic hand ever came close to achieving this level of success.

So this particular doctoral thesis seems to contain some possibly interesting ingredients worthwhile looking at. As any doctoral thesis here is public record, and a copy of it must be made available at the public library, I borrowed a copy for further information.

There are some other prosthetic developments, however, nowhere else is academic research anywhere near that successful as in the instance of the C-leg:

  • Otto Bock Michelangelo hand; the mechanism seems to come from American DARPA or other army research and probably was just built, the first glove was a great design work. So there is no analytical approach comparable to the C-Leg. It is too heavy, it does not work with prosthetic gloves really, it is not sturdy.
  • i-Limb: This cannot possibly have suffered too much analytical thought. The device looks more like it was born out of something else. While it does not always function as maybe intended, it is really lovable. It does not have a reliable precision grip, it is really weak, it tears up its paper thin gloves within minutes.
  • TRS prosthetics: Bob Radocy as end-user himself developed by far the greatest useful solutions. But they are not the result of extensive academic efforts, so they cannot be compared to the C-Leg. They are extremely good though and any analysis must start there.
  • Toughware PRX: These devices are extremely well made, mechanics wise - but we lack an analytical model that precedes the engineering there as well, comparing this to the C-leg approach.
  • Becker Mechanical Hand: Also the Becker hand was clearly built by someone with great practical and pragmatic understanding. No analytical effort of the magnitude of a C-Leg preceded it though.
  • Hosmer hooks: they came out of a practical development, no scholarly work appeared to be prepared for these either.

 

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[1] D. Zlatnik, "Intelligently controlled above knee prosthesis," PhD Thesis, 1998.
[Bibtex]
@phdthesis{zlatnik1998intelligently,
  title={Intelligently controlled above knee prosthesis},
  author={Zlatnik, Daniel},
  year={1998},
 school={ETH Zuerich, Switzerland}
}

Grip strengths (measured results)

Cite this article:
Wolf Schweitzer: Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Grip strengths (measured results); published January 18, 2017, 20:09; URL: https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=7085.

BibTeX: @MISC{schweitzer_wolf_1569169656, author = {Wolf Schweitzer}, title = {{Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Grip strengths (measured results)}}, month = {January},year = {2017}, url = {https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=7085}}


Using a Camry EH101 electronic hand dynamometer, I went through a few prosthetic terminal devices for my arm to see just how strong they were. And I added a baseline for my (human) left hand and my (bare) stump.

This certainly provides a base for a range of discussions later. Or previous ones ; )

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Der Cybathlon 2016 wurde bei den Armprothesen von einem Mann mit "Hook" gewonnen [#research #surprise #bodypowered]

Cite this article:
Wolf Schweitzer: Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Der Cybathlon 2016 wurde bei den Armprothesen von einem Mann mit "Hook" gewonnen [#research #surprise #bodypowered]; published October 11, 2016, 18:34; URL: https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=6670.

BibTeX: @MISC{schweitzer_wolf_1569169656, author = {Wolf Schweitzer}, title = {{Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Der Cybathlon 2016 wurde bei den Armprothesen von einem Mann mit "Hook" gewonnen [#research #surprise #bodypowered]}}, month = {October},year = {2016}, url = {https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=6670}}


2 Comments

Ich weiss jetzt nicht, ob Sie das mitbekommen haben. Und ob Sie begreifen was da passiert ist.

Aber am Cybathlon 2016 (Cybathlon, ETH, NCCR Robotics), einer Art Behindertenschaulaufen ohne besonderen  wissenschaftlichen aber dafuer sehr publikumswirksamen Hintergrund [wieso/was:link] mit mehrheitlich durch das Patronat der ETH suggerierten "High-Tech-Hintergrund" gewann ein Mann das Armprothesenrennen, der einen "Hook" trug [siehe detaillierte Griffanalyse, link]. Arschcool, mit 67 ein Senior, dort auch klar der älteste.

Fehlerfrei und schnell.

bodypoweredclothespins

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The Cybathlon as iconic Trash Culture modern day Circus show: arm amputees, arms race and technical considerations regarding specific applicants [proper research domain assignment, pre-race evaluation of critical check points, detailed in-race grip analysis, cultural domain considerations, gonzo race report]

Cite this article:
Wolf Schweitzer: Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - The Cybathlon as iconic Trash Culture modern day Circus show: arm amputees, arms race and technical considerations regarding specific applicants [proper research domain assignment, pre-race evaluation of critical check points, detailed in-race grip analysis, cultural domain considerations, gonzo race report]; published October 7, 2016, 17:28; URL: https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=6378.

BibTeX: @MISC{schweitzer_wolf_1569169656, author = {Wolf Schweitzer}, title = {{Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - The Cybathlon as iconic Trash Culture modern day Circus show: arm amputees, arms race and technical considerations regarding specific applicants [proper research domain assignment, pre-race evaluation of critical check points, detailed in-race grip analysis, cultural domain considerations, gonzo race report]}}, month = {October},year = {2016}, url = {https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=6378}}


Executive summary

  • Arm amputation is more a social (and complex) than just a manual handicap in many daily situations. Therefore many approaches to dealing with it are social and socially motivated, including hand color. You did land on a right below elbow amputation website, like, apparently, so that is the angle from which this comes. Also we made sure this is the title of this website. Different aspects may apply to higher level and bilateral arm amputation, but that is not the target of this website.
  • Conversely, most actually manual problems are not major. What heavily impacts many unilateral arm amputees after 5-8 years or maybe after 10 -20 years, is the impact of overuse of the intact arm and asymmetry related problems. A rational approach to prevent that is to use prosthetic arms that excel particularly at the heavy to extreme range of physical exposure. Those are typically modern body powered arms. These use well established control principles, but can be made from very modern materials. They suffer from medial representations that are largely negative ("Captain Hook"). Myoelectric arms are termed "high tech" simply because they may contain a battery and motors, but they suffer from a battery of intractable or constrained problem combinations.
  • For that, the ETH has so far not been necessary to add to the field of prosthetic arms, but trash culture approaches have a lot going for them regardless of that. My own practical and pragmatic research (see also below) contains such elements and now, the ETH also is proud organizer of a Circus freak show (which in essence is an event that lacks academic approaches and reduces intellectual participation to staring).
  • Neither the ETH nor the NCCR Robotics ever managed to acknowledge that or develop even the tiniest solution to solve just about anything in that matter (remember the title of this page?). That is perfectly OK as quite possibly, myoelectric arms are uninteresting from an actual researcher point of view once one understands the full scope of problems, and body powered arms are uninteresting because their problems are a combination of mechanics, material science, and context dependent issues that usually require deep insights which is currently performed by a small relatively close knit international community of amputees, developers and researchers.
  • Given their academic background claims, ETH or NCCR based approaches could and should have focused on studying intricate differences and aspects of prosthetic arm success and failure during the Cybathlon competition in all situations, pre-race and in-race. I mean: if you claim you want to do, or push, research, better sit down and work on a really detailed introductory explanation to show that we all see how much you understand what detailed features we are all looking for. I am most definitely all for that, but I do not shy away from weird staring contest evaluations either. These define an amputee's daily reality more than you might like.
  • But to no surprise, the technical research representatives neither prepared, nor carried out, such, so any technical analysis of the race that then was presented to the public to actually increase some real understanding for the effectively present research problems and real world issues so it will never be possible in sufficient detail or write any great scientific paper about it. Or, not from how it looks now.
  • Thus, academically (not industrially, not as bystander, person that loves to stare at arm amputees or spectator), the event of the Cybathlon prosthetic arm race was a thoroughly missed opportunity if not a failure.
  • This does not mean that the Cybathlon as such was meaningless; it just showed that body powered technology (TRS, TRS prehensor) as very calmly and perfectly performed and carried out by a 67 year old man (Bob Radocy) that did not visibly hurry but chewed gum for the whole event left all "robotic" competition behind - while I had warned the organizers from a one-dimensional overly simplistic evaluation two years ago. I had always told them exactly what Claudia Breidbach said in her statement after the finals race: you cannot compare, across various different arm amputation with adapted different devices, what a good performance is. They knew as they had been extensively informed beforehand. The search for what prosthetic arms should be able to actually do well remains ongoing though, the odyssey apparently continues with a Cybathlon 2020.
  • And while any evidence based rational mind would now more than ever (a) want a body powered prosthesis and (b) further research on that type of prosthesis, it was the very clear aim by the organizers to not include these arms in the race at all, until I had imposed myself onto the organizers, had a very serious word with them and convinced them to admit also body powered arms which they did.
  • The Swiss National Foundation (SNF) is strongly advised to look into the intricate aspects of all failures of (a) research opportunities missed and (b) strategic solutions actually needed in prosthetic arm and hand field, (c) appoint very competent coordinators and advisors there and (d) not finance silly "competitions" such as this that do not further science at all or (e) finance more myoelectric nonsense.
  • All the same, the Cybathlon was a great experience in how ETH hype, tech media hype and gadget hand industry hype take a royal tanking against real life based real men, and, if you need a short but intensive read on the reasons why the myoelectric arms missed out today, check my Cybathlon Symposium scientific contribution, you will find there more relevant text than in many other places.
  • I do not hate myoelectric arms. Personally I must have invested more finances into my own myoelectric gadgets than into my body powered components. However, that does not make me blind, dumb or gadget happy. I still test, look, think and analyze. I still work on finding better ways, solutions, parts or usage tricks for both systems. But then, coming from an engineering perspective (funny you come here to read that) - finding the exact problem, identifying the exact issue, has been placed before being ablt to solving it. And the simple beauty of engineering is, that whatever your attempt at covering up your tricks, at the end of the day, the contraption either works, or it does not.
  • While Professor Riener verbally once (1) at the Cybathlon race itself mentioned the fact that cable powered technology won (we were there, see Gonzo report below), they made sure none of that leaked to the Swiss television, or BBC, or newspapers, or IEEE, or other press. They simply buried the fact that they were left eating dust by some very athletic older gentleman wearing a body powered prosthetic arm. Because that is like having someone in sandals and swim trunks run up on Mount Everest. They do not report that as it is seen as putting the other efforts to shame rather than being seen as someone, something, a situation to finally learn from. And that puts massive question marks to the news writers, tech representatives and researchers: is what you do something we have to believe, because quite clearly, facts are not consistent with it? Do you represent a type of religion or belief system?
  • Not all are like that. The Scientific American, a journal that I am a subscriber and reader of since many, many years, reports extremely well, and explains the actual technical aspects of the winning device.
  • The Cybathlon was announced as competition that allows visitors to "understand the issues surrounding disability in a practical way". When not even the organizers understand these issues, and not even in a theoretical way, how on earth can they assume an ability to instruct visitors so they understand disability issues?

Trash Culture, the Cybathlon prosthetic arms race show Circus, and other prosthetic limb Trash Culture approaches

"Mommy, do I have to repeat every mistake others made before me myself?" - "Yes, one can learn so much from mistakes".

Don't get me wrong here.

Trash Culture is a great contemporary experience. If anything, this is what gets people talking. But it is not research or academic. This is not at all a critique, but an attempt to better localize this strange event in context of prosthetic arms, amputation and society.

It is just a Circus.

To unmake it a Circus and Make It a Technical Contest, a bit more attention to detail would have be needed. A lot more attention to detail would have made it a great event. That all was missed.

Now, I will supplement you with the required extra details below to make it a research observation despite the organizers successful attempts to keep it simple, hip, sexy and trashy .... but let that not spoil the fun for you.

boot

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Otto Bock's funny video (hooks after all? needle and thread benchmark?)

Cite this article:
Wolf Schweitzer: Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Otto Bock's funny video (hooks after all? needle and thread benchmark?); published June 13, 2015, 16:18; URL: https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=4981.

BibTeX: @MISC{schweitzer_wolf_1569169656, author = {Wolf Schweitzer}, title = {{Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Otto Bock's funny video (hooks after all? needle and thread benchmark?)}}, month = {June},year = {2015}, url = {https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=4981}}


2 Comments

After I seriously promoted hook grip predominance for years (read this friggin website), after I tried to introduce the Becker Hand to a wider audience (Otto Bock can not top that, it costs less than 700 bucks, is sturdy, survives even my lifestyle and does have an adaptive grip) also by using it to place a string into a needle YEARS ago, Otto Bock seems to now expand their heavy and overly expensive Michelangelo anchor with a choice of hook. They then manage to post an April Fool date video with that. How funny is that. Confused!!

Seriously. I was not THAT desperate for getting confirmation, and certainly not from these people.

As they sold me botched bolts a few years ago and when faced with bare facts (to this day) refused to apologize, instead recommended to get ergotherapy (probably to better use their crappy hardware) it is unbelievable to see them present this here. Why is the person not holding the needle with the hook, and using their natural hand to put in the thread? Where are ergo-therapists when Otto Bock needs them most?

We also realize that Otto Bock may not just have hooks that have a sustained capacity to grab threads. They also have other hooks. Incidentally, maybe keep posting videos of that one hook's ability to grab a string over the coming months and years.

Because really, Otto Bock hook experience with threads is more like this:

And really, body powered remains the better choice after all. Not with Otto Bock parts though.

But with a Hosmer hook, a V2P prehensor or maybe a Becker hand. Exceeds most of Otto Bock's specs ; )

And seriously. If you are after real work (maybe here) (or a lot harder, here or here), ask me, maybe I found out stuff that could help you. Just saying.

Photography as right below elbow amputee [technical tips]

Cite this article:
Wolf Schweitzer: Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Photography as right below elbow amputee [technical tips]; published May 30, 2014, 20:51; URL: https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=1075.

BibTeX: @MISC{schweitzer_wolf_1569169656, author = {Wolf Schweitzer}, title = {{Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Photography as right below elbow amputee [technical tips]}}, month = {May},year = {2014}, url = {https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=1075}}


I was surprised to see that (according to a recent news article [link]) an Otto Bock Michelangelo hand was required to reclaim one's role as photographer:

"This Michelangelo is quantum leaps ahead of anything I have ever been able to do before," Wigington said.

The hope is, with training, Wigington can reclaim his position as the family photographer.

(quoted from http://www.wthr.com/story/20111441/indianapolis-minister-first-to-get-revolutionary-prosthetic on Dec 13th 2012). 

It appears that in over some 20 years of being a right below elbow amputee, Dave Wigington has not been able to figure out how to use a camera well, swift, fast and proficiently.

It appears that in over some 20 years, one now requires a particular "bionic" hand to be a family photographer.

This is extraordinary.

See, it took me exactly a day or two after the amputation to figure out that my camera still worked the exact same way. That was before "bionic" prostheses came along.

So there is a big difference between my own experience and between Dave Wigington's experience.

Seeing that there are obvious differences in what people think they can or can not do, I tried to see where the problem might be.

From there, I will illustrate some ways of taking photos singlehandedly, with the left hand, and / or with my prosthetic arm. If Dave has problems, other people may find this instructive. Who knows.  Read More

Body powered arms [technical design overview]

Cite this article:
Wolf Schweitzer: Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Body powered arms [technical design overview]; published November 21, 2013, 07:05; URL: https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=2371.

BibTeX: @MISC{schweitzer_wolf_1569169656, author = {Wolf Schweitzer}, title = {{Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Body powered arms [technical design overview]}}, month = {November},year = {2013}, url = {https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=2371}}


Body powered arms are not the same. Despite everyone saying they understand what these are, these arms are not the same.

My setup explained, a generic setup explained. To show similarities and differences. For those in need to learn about this, technical differences to myoelectric arms are explained.

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Socket Art and Prostheses Art as Obsession - the amputated limb and its prosthetic replacement as Permanent Canvas Shape for an exhibition called Spare Parts 2012 [freak show corner]

Cite this article:
Wolf Schweitzer: Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Socket Art and Prostheses Art as Obsession - the amputated limb and its prosthetic replacement as Permanent Canvas Shape for an exhibition called Spare Parts 2012 [freak show corner]; published July 30, 2012, 13:33; URL: https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=1141.

BibTeX: @MISC{schweitzer_wolf_1569169656, author = {Wolf Schweitzer}, title = {{Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Socket Art and Prostheses Art as Obsession - the amputated limb and its prosthetic replacement as Permanent Canvas Shape for an exhibition called Spare Parts 2012 [freak show corner]}}, month = {July},year = {2012}, url = {https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=1141}}


Currently, an exhibiton titled "Spare Parts 2012" that exhibits prosthetic limb related artwork in London draws interest and its creator, Priscilla Sutton, claims it has a positive vibe.

Does the 'Spare Parts' exhibition 2012 have a positive vibe, really?

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Socket Art and Prostheses Art as Obsession - the amputated limb and its prosthetic replacement as Permanent Canvas Shape for an exhibition called Spare Parts 2012 [freak show corner]

Cite this article:
Wolf Schweitzer: Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Socket Art and Prostheses Art as Obsession - the amputated limb and its prosthetic replacement as Permanent Canvas Shape for an exhibition called Spare Parts 2012 [freak show corner]; published July 30, 2012, 12:43; URL: https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=615.

BibTeX: @MISC{schweitzer_wolf_1569169656, author = {Wolf Schweitzer}, title = {{Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Socket Art and Prostheses Art as Obsession - the amputated limb and its prosthetic replacement as Permanent Canvas Shape for an exhibition called Spare Parts 2012 [freak show corner]}}, month = {July},year = {2012}, url = {https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=615}}


Currently, an exhibiton titled "Spare Parts 2012" that exhibits prosthetic limb related artwork in London draws interest and its creator, Priscilla Sutton, claims it has a positive vibe.

Does the 'Spare Parts' exhibition 2012 have a positive vibe, really?

Read More

Making coffee as arm amputee benchmark activity / ADL activities of daily living [demo]

Cite this article:
Wolf Schweitzer: Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Making coffee as arm amputee benchmark activity / ADL activities of daily living [demo]; published June 3, 2012, 23:15; URL: https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=548.

BibTeX: @MISC{schweitzer_wolf_1569169656, author = {Wolf Schweitzer}, title = {{Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Making coffee as arm amputee benchmark activity / ADL activities of daily living [demo]}}, month = {June},year = {2012}, url = {https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=548}}


The currently available demo benchmark activities that attempt to show the greatness of ~90'000 USD priced loud fragile "bionic" hands include videos of activities that do not at all require that extra hand, like, making instant coffee : ) - as can be seen here in all glory......:

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Unlauter: SF DRS (Schweizer Fernsehen) wirbt fuer Otto Bock [Missbrauch Billag-Gebuehren]

Cite this article:
Wolf Schweitzer: Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Unlauter: SF DRS (Schweizer Fernsehen) wirbt fuer Otto Bock [Missbrauch Billag-Gebuehren]; published January 18, 2012, 01:15; URL: https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=526.

BibTeX: @MISC{schweitzer_wolf_1569169656, author = {Wolf Schweitzer}, title = {{Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Unlauter: SF DRS (Schweizer Fernsehen) wirbt fuer Otto Bock [Missbrauch Billag-Gebuehren]}}, month = {January},year = {2012}, url = {https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=526}}


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