expletive-ethereal
expletive-ethereal
expletive-ethereal
expletive-ethereal

Category: Disability and the public

Promembro - Schweizer Lobbyisten wollen Hightech-Prothesen "legalisieren"

Cite this article:
Wolf Schweitzer: Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Promembro - Schweizer Lobbyisten wollen Hightech-Prothesen "legalisieren"; published December 16, 2018, 16:24; URL: https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=9017.

BibTeX: @MISC{schweitzer_wolf_1571442946, author = {Wolf Schweitzer}, title = {{Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Promembro - Schweizer Lobbyisten wollen Hightech-Prothesen "legalisieren"}}, month = {December},year = {2018}, url = {https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=9017}}


Auf ihrer Webseite behaupten Personen von Promembro, "Wir sind die Lobby der Prothesenträger/innen und schaffen ein Schweizer Netz, das auf den Schutz der Interessen der gesamten Prothesenträger/innen spezialisiert ist: Jugendliche und Ältere, Sportler und Nichtsportler, Aktive und Rentner, Kranke und Gesunde. Wir vertreten die Anliegen unserer Mitglieder sowohl bei der Bevölkerung als auch in Politik und der Verwaltung. Die Institutionen wie Procap oder Pro Infirmis sind zu gross, um sich der kleine Zahl der Prothesenträger genügend zu widmen." - Grundsaetzlich sind sie an einer Motion interessiert [link][link], an der Balthasar Glaettli und Roger Golay beteiligt sind.

Damit moegen diese Individuen glauben, wer immer sie seien - aber meine Interessen vertreten sie mit Sicherheit nicht. Sie sind niemals "die" Lobby. Da sie behaupten, sie schaffen "ein Netz", das die Interessen der "gesamten" Prothesentraeger vertreten, ist die Behauptung (oben) bereits bewiesenermassen falsch. Sie vertreten mit Sicherheit meine Interessen, insbesondere diejenigen, die ich relevant finde, nicht. Dazu fehlt es erwiesenermassen an Verstaendnis, und vor allem Respekt. Vielmehr verwenden sie die laengst abgeschmackte Piraten-Metapher, um werbewirksam auf sich aufmerksam zu machen.
Read More

Disability and the public - prosthetic arms and more: do we appear "competent"? (review)

Cite this article:
Wolf Schweitzer: Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Disability and the public - prosthetic arms and more: do we appear "competent"? (review); published December 7, 2018, 15:50; URL: https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=8812.

BibTeX: @MISC{schweitzer_wolf_1571442946, author = {Wolf Schweitzer}, title = {{Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Disability and the public - prosthetic arms and more: do we appear "competent"? (review)}}, month = {December},year = {2018}, url = {https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=8812}}


The current view of us, what the general public thinks of us, seems to be a major aspect. Of "us", yes.

The research question for this armchair analyst thus will be: are we - arm amputees in specific, and, as people with a visible physical handicap more generally, more broadly as disabled people generally, seen as competent people?

Generally, the answer seems to be a clear "NO" right from the outset.

This should not come as a shock. There are good reasons to believe that, great reasons to make that plausible, perfect reasons to justify that statement. With that, there may be exceptions to that -  people that see through society's fairytales of disability, horror and fears, but they are usually the exception.

As I had figured out quite early into my enquiries into that issue, that this aspect is of absolutely no further practical concern not because it is not disconcerting - but because I cannot change it. And that is a rapid, lean and cynical logical consequence, that I stopped caring about what other people think of me based on, say, visual impression of my prosthetic arm. I may thus safely focus on function and comfort, sustainability and cost, without worrying too much about whether other people treat me as more or less competent based on my looks. Not because it would not be cool to take influence but because it is of no matter as to the target dimension: the tendendy to disregard any mental capacity of people with physical handicap appears to be implemented in many people's thinking outside of any actual experiences. And regardless of what type of prosthesis I wear.

If anything, I might optimize my appearance by simply trying to look reasonably neat.

But to bend over backwards for what really we have to concede are actually strange people? If anything, can we hack their brains?

Read More

Sensory robot hand feedback: not so necessary for amputees but definitely necessary for tele-operators [why sensory feedback is military research and not rehabilitation research]

Cite this article:
Wolf Schweitzer: Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Sensory robot hand feedback: not so necessary for amputees but definitely necessary for tele-operators [why sensory feedback is military research and not rehabilitation research]; published October 28, 2018, 19:21; URL: https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=8751.

BibTeX: @MISC{schweitzer_wolf_1571442946, author = {Wolf Schweitzer}, title = {{Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Sensory robot hand feedback: not so necessary for amputees but definitely necessary for tele-operators [why sensory feedback is military research and not rehabilitation research]}}, month = {October},year = {2018}, url = {https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=8751}}


Why is so much effort going into sensory feedback type military research and not rehabilitation research?

  • Myoelectric control is inherently and unfixably unreliable anyway in daily use by amputees - but possibly not so much of an issue when used by an anatomically intact individual in an army robot control room.
  • Myoelectric grippers are caught between sufficiently light (and far too weak) and sufficiently strong (but too heavy) without way out, from view of a prosthetic arm wearing community.
  • They are a niche product even in terms of actually sustainable prosthetic fitting, from view of applied usage.

Logically, all the research effort that significantly helps military applications, but does not significantly help a real prosthetic arm, clearly marches into one direction only: army development, military research.

And because no one looks and no one cares, research money for rehabilitation of amputees can easily be siphoned off for military applications.

The background for asking these questions is that there must be very distinct reasons why in 2018, a body powered hook is still the only prosthetic type that can be reliably used in strenuous physical applications.

And now, we are starting to get interested in the sociological reasons why that is.

A recently discovered surprisingly high degree of cynicism towards disabled people and particularly those with an amputation by those that claim to technically improve rehabilitation very clearly points towards a non-rehabilitative sociological setting, whereas cynicism in army circles is to be expected [1].

Read More

[1] L. Braithwaite and S. R. Sonnad, "Cynicism amongst military police personnel in Western Europe," Justice Quarterly, vol. 1, iss. 3, pp. 413-436, 1984.
[Bibtex]
@article{braithwaite1984cynicism,
  title={Cynicism amongst military police personnel in Western Europe},
  author={Braithwaite, Lloyd and Sonnad, Subhash R},
  journal={Justice Quarterly},
  volume={1},
  number={3},
  pages={413--436},
  year={1984},
  publisher={Taylor \& Francis}
}

BLUE LIGHT SPECIAL: Pitch black cynicism in the Cybathlon 2020: "the role of a disabled person" [not funny]

Cite this article:
Wolf Schweitzer: Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - BLUE LIGHT SPECIAL: Pitch black cynicism in the Cybathlon 2020: "the role of a disabled person" [not funny]; published October 25, 2018, 23:02; URL: https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=8680.

BibTeX: @MISC{schweitzer_wolf_1571442946, author = {Wolf Schweitzer}, title = {{Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - BLUE LIGHT SPECIAL: Pitch black cynicism in the Cybathlon 2020: "the role of a disabled person" [not funny]}}, month = {October},year = {2018}, url = {https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=8680}}


"With that, visitors of the Cybathlon Experience (TM) can test the role of a disabled person" (können in die Rolle einer behinderten Person schlüpfen) (Oral presentation: "CYBATHLON – bewegt Mensch und Technik", 5.15pm–6.00pm, Dr. Roland Sigrist, Cybathlon, ETH Zurich, Raum E 1.2) -- I was there, one among the 8 people that made the audience of this "sold out" Cybathlon talk; amputees are there for "entertainment" (clearly one of the requirements written on a slide in the presentation) (ist es das, was wir als behinderte Personen spielen? eine Rolle, ja?).

After defining a remarkably strange prosthetic arm race, the makers of the Cybathlon 2020 now start to openly bathe us in their pitch-black cynicism.

Why? Pressing question.

Read More

The Bad Batch (2017) - review of movie with main character as amputee [bleak authenticity via CGI]

Cite this article:
Wolf Schweitzer: Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - The Bad Batch (2017) - review of movie with main character as amputee [bleak authenticity via CGI]; published September 22, 2018, 10:43; URL: https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=7931.

BibTeX: @MISC{schweitzer_wolf_1571442946, author = {Wolf Schweitzer}, title = {{Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - The Bad Batch (2017) - review of movie with main character as amputee [bleak authenticity via CGI]}}, month = {September},year = {2018}, url = {https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=7931}}


There is real life with amputation. Then, there is the crazy domain populated by villains and Captain Hooks, legends whose stereotypical simplification make one puke of repetitive boredom - even without a drop of empathy.

And then, there are visual tales.

One recent visual tale was Mad Max Fury Road, where Furiosa - a below elbow amputee - has her handicap become a focus if not the no-verbalized center of visual story telling. And while some internet aficionados try to downplay the fact that Furiosa ultimately is dumped by Mad Max simply because of her hosed arm, the visual imagery leaves little negotiation there, if one looks, if one regards, if one takes in visually, if one embarks on that journey that a visual tale wants to take you on. One can even quantify the disabled body part size in the visuals of the movie in relation to the rest. Ah, yes, I review such movies since a while.

And here?

Here we get a piece of great pop culture, totally out there, that also plays in a dystopian world or maybe future. And yet, it resonates entirely differently than just dystopian or otherwise. It could go down as a checklist, bleak and dry.

Spoiler alert.

Read More

Embodiment of a prosthetic arm [reflections, thoughts, considerations]

Cite this article:
Wolf Schweitzer: Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Embodiment of a prosthetic arm [reflections, thoughts, considerations]; published September 16, 2018, 15:42; URL: https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=8513.

BibTeX: @MISC{schweitzer_wolf_1571442946, author = {Wolf Schweitzer}, title = {{Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Embodiment of a prosthetic arm [reflections, thoughts, considerations]}}, month = {September},year = {2018}, url = {https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=8513}}


So, apparently I had been "identified" as a "super prosthesis user" by a group of researchers. And I was invited to talk about embodiment in context of the "rubber hand illusion" at a user interface or robotic control workshop [link].

So is that what I am: a "user"?

Tsk.

Read More

Understanding and informing design issues of a prosthetic arm for below elbow amputation by way of "taxonomy" [literature review, reality check]

Cite this article:
Wolf Schweitzer: Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Understanding and informing design issues of a prosthetic arm for below elbow amputation by way of "taxonomy" [literature review, reality check]; published July 26, 2018, 21:18; URL: https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=7651.

BibTeX: @MISC{schweitzer_wolf_1571442946, author = {Wolf Schweitzer}, title = {{Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Understanding and informing design issues of a prosthetic arm for below elbow amputation by way of "taxonomy" [literature review, reality check]}}, month = {July},year = {2018}, url = {https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=7651}}


The academic and industrial attempts to approach prosthetic arms so far have been met with less success than the providers must have hoped for. Far less, in fact so little that we wonder what is going on.

Possibly, design issues are the key to this as however vaguely put, some analytic approach needs to inform better design - but how to really inform better design from issues based on analysis? What is a suitable analysis? If we cannot see any better designs anywhere in practice, real life, then what is the analysis worth? Can we analyze analyses to get a better understanding of what might be going on there?

We might best start with what we know to be true.

Read More

Kommentar zu "Siri hat immer Lust - Gehört die Zukunft den Cyborgs und intelligenten Maschinen?" (UZH Magazin 2/18)

Cite this article:
Wolf Schweitzer: Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Kommentar zu "Siri hat immer Lust - Gehört die Zukunft den Cyborgs und intelligenten Maschinen?" (UZH Magazin 2/18); published June 20, 2018, 19:37; URL: https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=9539.

BibTeX: @MISC{schweitzer_wolf_1571442946, author = {Wolf Schweitzer}, title = {{Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Kommentar zu "Siri hat immer Lust - Gehört die Zukunft den Cyborgs und intelligenten Maschinen?" (UZH Magazin 2/18)}}, month = {June},year = {2018}, url = {https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=9539}}


Modifying Shimano Ultegra road bike setup on a Colnago C40 for left handed use - second approach [technical right below elbow amputee core focus work / bike adaptation]

Cite this article:
Wolf Schweitzer: Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Modifying Shimano Ultegra road bike setup on a Colnago C40 for left handed use - second approach [technical right below elbow amputee core focus work / bike adaptation]; published January 27, 2018, 15:30; URL: https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=8196.

BibTeX: @MISC{schweitzer_wolf_1571442946, author = {Wolf Schweitzer}, title = {{Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Modifying Shimano Ultegra road bike setup on a Colnago C40 for left handed use - second approach [technical right below elbow amputee core focus work / bike adaptation]}}, month = {January},year = {2018}, url = {https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=8196}}


After a first approach, where also the history and idea where it came from is detailed [link], I now set up and tested a second approach to modifying my Colnago C40 carbon bike with a triple chainring Shimano Ultegra chainset.

The extensive testing of my first approach that I had performed there lead to a range of concise detailed issues and problems. There were now addressed, all, and thus a second (and significantly better) approach resulted.

As stated before, no disability sports advocate specializing in road bikes and no bicycle mechanic specializing in individualization and custom solutions over the years ever thought this was possible in this way. They all said it could not be done. And I had asked a few of them, since it had bugged me a lot. And as I had sold my Cannondale road bike after the amputation, thinking there was no way, I now got myself a road bike back and decided to go down my own path to really use it the way it is meant to be used.

Generally and as part of riding a road bike, I wanted fast and comfortable gear switching, fast and accessible and comfortable braking, and I wanted to be able to enjoy various and if possible equally comfortable sitting positions or body positions. A great road bike trip may be a lot longer than a fast mountain bike trip into the forest. Last but not the least, as amputee my stump usually would suffer from vibration induced pain after 20 minutes  particularly with hard connectors such as the Mert or Freelock adapters, so padding definitely was an issue.

Read More

Wie das Schweizer Fernsehen SRF über Armprothesen falsch informiert und statt dessen Werbung macht und Kritik daran löscht[#NOBILLAG]

Cite this article:
Wolf Schweitzer: Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Wie das Schweizer Fernsehen SRF über Armprothesen falsch informiert und statt dessen Werbung macht und Kritik daran löscht[#NOBILLAG]; published January 20, 2018, 16:01; URL: https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=8125.

BibTeX: @MISC{schweitzer_wolf_1571442946, author = {Wolf Schweitzer}, title = {{Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Wie das Schweizer Fernsehen SRF über Armprothesen falsch informiert und statt dessen Werbung macht und Kritik daran löscht[#NOBILLAG]}}, month = {January},year = {2018}, url = {https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=8125}}


Ein Staatsfernsehen, das von sich Ausgewogenheit und inhaltliche Korrektheit in einer Demokratie als Werbefloskel herzeigt, muss sich unter diesem Label auch entsprechend anstrengen. Wenn stattdessen Werbung für kommerzielle Dinge gezeigt wird, geht Richtigkeit und Unabhängigkeit verloren. Das Schweizer Staatsfernsehen zeigt bereits klar Werbung, ohne dies aber zu deklarieren. Das ist in verschiedener Hinsicht schlecht und gefährlich, besonders für den nicht darauf aufmerksam gemachten Zuschauer.

Armamputierte eignen sich besonders, um über sie und ihre Dinge zu lügen, Märchen aufzutischen und Unwahrheiten zu verbreiten. Wir haben keine Lobby. Man hält uns für grenzdebil, Mit uns machen die Medien gerade was sie nur wollen. Was sie machen, hat mit der Realität oft nicht viel zu tun. Und exakt so ist es auch bei einem Beitrag von Frau Helwi Braunmiller von Schweizer Fernsehen SRF mit dem Titel "Hightech-Armprothese - Nicht nur optisch nahe an der Hand".

Read More

Case-study of a user-driven prosthetic arm design: bionic hand versus customized body-powered technology in a highly demanding work environment [article out]

Cite this article:
Wolf Schweitzer: Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Case-study of a user-driven prosthetic arm design: bionic hand versus customized body-powered technology in a highly demanding work environment [article out]; published January 4, 2018, 14:29; URL: https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=8066.

BibTeX: @MISC{schweitzer_wolf_1571442946, author = {Wolf Schweitzer}, title = {{Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Case-study of a user-driven prosthetic arm design: bionic hand versus customized body-powered technology in a highly demanding work environment [article out]}}, month = {January},year = {2018}, url = {https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=8066}}


 


This is a blog post of one of the rare focused and well based scientific journal articles that really explains how real work, body powered and myoelectric arms relate and go together for a unilateral right below elbow amputee in a physically demanding work environment.

The prior presentation of this paper [poster at Cybathlon symposium 2016], which had been more pragmatically worded (with me thinking people would know anyway), this was now written up as article and published. During that process, the reviewers clearly made great points of all kinds of aspects I never knew were not sky clear to everyone.

So maybe, writing a ~ 30 page case study with > 210 references does clarify stuff, at least potentially and for those that actually read it. But possibly, it still requires attention to even just read it.

Knowledge does not come easy, Highlander! (Nakano, in: Highlander III The Final Dimension)

 

If you are more interested in visionary posts, read about the gadget features of the prosthetic arm in Kingsmen: The Golden Circle [link]. And technically, myoelectric control did have it coming. That technology remained uncool for four decades [link].

Publication [link]

Read More

Kingsman: The Golden Circle [movie review]

Cite this article:
Wolf Schweitzer: Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Kingsman: The Golden Circle [movie review]; published January 4, 2018, 14:28; URL: https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=7967.

BibTeX: @MISC{schweitzer_wolf_1571442946, author = {Wolf Schweitzer}, title = {{Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Kingsman: The Golden Circle [movie review]}}, month = {January},year = {2018}, url = {https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=7967}}


The 2017 movie Kingsman: Golden Circle gets it wrong again, and yet, it has so many critical new features we need to review these.

This movie has the capacity to inspire massive innovations, so it would be quite realistic to expect Disney / 20th Century Fox to also finance prosthetic arm development of their vision of what could be.

This then would not be new. Prosthetic industries seem to run after science-fiction role models, with the following examples:

  • Luke Arm [link]
  • Deus Ex Machina arm [link]

Now, this Kingsman: The Golden Circle movie features an amputee, just as the first Kingsman: The Secret Service movie did. There, a leg amputee was featured whereas here, we have an arm amputee with us.

Stereotypically, the arm amputee, again, is the villain.

Stereotypically, the arm amputee lacks assertion, self assertion or expression of relevant emotions, and ever so stereotypically, the arm amputee villain is killed in due process of the storyline.

Stereotypically as well, the actor himself is not an amputee - which, from view point of directing or producing and surely watching this movie, is definitely wrong. A movie industry that cannot rely on amputee actors for amputee roles clearly defies its purpose on more than one level.

However, one cannot say that lack of authenticity with respect to the amputee character is a valid point of critique in this Kingsman film. This is almost pure visual fairytale telling.

And despite all attempts to be ridiculous and detached from a real world, and despite the usual stereotypical placement of an arm amputee in this movie, Kingsman: The Golden Circle has cool gadget features, that some day we want to see on real prosthetic arms.

So the movie deserves a close look from viewpoint of arm amputee prosthetics despite the usual concerns.

Read More

Scientific approach taken for implementing a successfully marketable microprocessor-controlled knee - history of Otto Bock C-leg [lessons for prosthetic arms?]

Cite this article:
Wolf Schweitzer: Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Scientific approach taken for implementing a successfully marketable microprocessor-controlled knee - history of Otto Bock C-leg [lessons for prosthetic arms?]; published January 2, 2018, 15:10; URL: https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=7790.

BibTeX: @MISC{schweitzer_wolf_1571442946, author = {Wolf Schweitzer}, title = {{Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Scientific approach taken for implementing a successfully marketable microprocessor-controlled knee - history of Otto Bock C-leg [lessons for prosthetic arms?]}}, month = {January},year = {2018}, url = {https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=7790}}


This blog post takes a few relevant observations, and assumptions, throws them up in the air and sees if they turn into sunshine.

  • If anything has brought us forward, it is also the ability to find relevant short cuts. We do not always have to invent the wheel when really we just want a variation of it.
  • If there is any acutal success story where academic research was required to leverage consumer market for a prosthetic limb, it is that of Otto Bock's C-leg.
  • If we can understand what the concepts are for getting a C-leg successfuly built, marketed and sold, we should be able to take generalized aspects of it to formulate success elements for prosthetic hands, grippers or arms.

Background

While the idea of a microprocessor controlled knee was created earlier [link], no marketable solution was available in due course. "In the early 1990s, Kelly James, an engineer at the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada, developed the C-Leg, the first leg with microprocessor-controlled swing and stance phases. Buying the rights from the university, he traveled around the world to interest prosthetic manufacturers in his invention ("A Leg Up," by Isabelle Gallant, U of A Engineer, Spring 2011). However, he didn't receive any commercial interest until German manufacturer Ottobock bought the patent in 1992 and launched the groundbreaking technology.".

Then, based on work betweeen 1995 and 1998, a doctoral thesis at the ETH Zurich described an intelligently, microprocessor controlled knee for above knee prostheses built from available and affordable materials [1].

That research was performed 1995 to 1998, financially supported by Otto Bock, and Otto Bock presented its first C-Leg in 1997.

The rest is history. If ever there was a leap in performance of prosthetic function, ever, it was the C-Leg. No prosthetic hand ever came close to achieving this level of success.

So this particular doctoral thesis seems to contain some possibly interesting ingredients worthwhile looking at. As any doctoral thesis here is public record, and a copy of it must be made available at the public library, I borrowed a copy for further information.

There are some other prosthetic developments, however, nowhere else is academic research anywhere near that successful as in the instance of the C-leg:

  • Otto Bock Michelangelo hand; the mechanism seems to come from American DARPA or other army research and probably was just built, the first glove was a great design work. So there is no analytical approach comparable to the C-Leg. It is too heavy, it does not work with prosthetic gloves really, it is not sturdy.
  • i-Limb: This cannot possibly have suffered too much analytical thought. The device looks more like it was born out of something else. While it does not always function as maybe intended, it is really lovable. It does not have a reliable precision grip, it is really weak, it tears up its paper thin gloves within minutes.
  • TRS prosthetics: Bob Radocy as end-user himself developed by far the greatest useful solutions. But they are not the result of extensive academic efforts, so they cannot be compared to the C-Leg. They are extremely good though and any analysis must start there.
  • Toughware PRX: These devices are extremely well made, mechanics wise - but we lack an analytical model that precedes the engineering there as well, comparing this to the C-leg approach.
  • Becker Mechanical Hand: Also the Becker hand was clearly built by someone with great practical and pragmatic understanding. No analytical effort of the magnitude of a C-Leg preceded it though.
  • Hosmer hooks: they came out of a practical development, no scholarly work appeared to be prepared for these either.

 

Read More

[1] D. Zlatnik, "Intelligently controlled above knee prosthesis," PhD Thesis, 1998.
[Bibtex]
@phdthesis{zlatnik1998intelligently,
  title={Intelligently controlled above knee prosthesis},
  author={Zlatnik, Daniel},
  year={1998},
 school={ETH Zuerich, Switzerland}
}
Do NOT follow this link or you will be banned from the site!
HTML Snippets Powered By : XYZScripts.com
I footnotes
x2