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Category: Algorithm regarding best choice of prosthetic arm

Artikel: "Kampf um die Prothese: «Behinderte werden vom Staat noch weiter behindert»" von D. Wirth, 28.10.2019 [Kommentar]

Cite this article:
Wolf Schweitzer: Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Artikel: "Kampf um die Prothese: «Behinderte werden vom Staat noch weiter behindert»" von D. Wirth, 28.10.2019 [Kommentar]; published October 28, 2019, 15:15; URL: https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=10281.

BibTeX: @MISC{schweitzer_wolf_1574228328, author = {Wolf Schweitzer}, title = {{Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Artikel: "Kampf um die Prothese: «Behinderte werden vom Staat noch weiter behindert»" von D. Wirth, 28.10.2019 [Kommentar]}}, month = {October},year = {2019}, url = {https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=10281}}


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Wie die Regeln, die Entscheidungsfindung, die Versicherungsbedingungen, die Gesetze1 , auszusehen haben, damit eine Sache ideal läuft, ist immer dann interessant, wenn die Worte nicht klar in ihrer Bedeutung sind, sondern zunächst einer Auslegung bedürfen, und wenn überdies unklar ist, was "ideal" bedeutet. So sollen Armprothesen "einfach, zweckmässig und wirtschaftlich" sein. Was das konkret ist, bleibt so lange unklar, solange Otto Bock etwa Komponenten für wie sie dort hoffen "robuste" Armprothesen verkaufen, die dann keineswegs nur kurzlebig in einem typischen Verbraucheralltag sind, sondern wo Kabelzüge für besonders belastbare Armprothesen regelhaft, design- und baubedingt, alle 4-10 Tage reissen und ein neuer Stahlseileinzug nötig wird, nur um ein kleines Beispiel zu nennen. Dann klaffen die möglichen Wortbedeutungen sehr breit.

In der Aargauerzeitung (link) steht nun zu dieser äusserst interessanten2  Frage heute:

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Angular constraints of prosthetic grippers and functional success correlation [technical evaluation]

Cite this article:
Wolf Schweitzer: Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Angular constraints of prosthetic grippers and functional success correlation [technical evaluation]; published February 11, 2019, 04:55; URL: https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=9322.

BibTeX: @MISC{schweitzer_wolf_1574228328, author = {Wolf Schweitzer}, title = {{Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Angular constraints of prosthetic grippers and functional success correlation [technical evaluation]}}, month = {February},year = {2019}, url = {https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=9322}}


I had evaluated, subjectively, the grip performance of various prosthetic options that I have. These have been already analysed in the context of grip taxonomy, where so far, research has largely focused on grip geometry as such, using some idiosyncratic logic that I found not too relevant.

Using a more relevant logic, I approached the question of grip mechanic from a different angle, both verbally and proverbially speaking: from a user angle, both actually geometrically and subjectively speaking.

I realized that most of my frequently used grips and grip situations fall into a far more narrow range of angle distributions than I had ever assumed.

While others keep rambling about compensatory motion [1] where they assume the "cause" to reside inside some extra joint or so, I know, from exposure and from intelligent looking (all that is needed, boys1) that the orientation of the grip angle and shape in relation to the fixed gripper geometry - including wrist rotation - has to work in conjunction with the average orientation of objects in everyday life, work, tasks and jobs. Not everyone understands adaptive or adaptable grip really well2  when really, modern "bionic" prosthetic hands have an electrically controlled adaptive grip that, by definition of "adaptive" (and not: "adaptable" [1]), closes fingers around any irregularly shaped object - just like, since maybe 1938, the Becker Mechanical hand does. So there is nothing new at all with regard to that. With regard to device-angle constraints, adaptive grip options do not change that really. The typical "tests" (ULPOM, SHAP, etc.[1]) do not produce output that forces the examiner onto the answer of "there, angles, you... you" so one is thrown unto oneself yet again, so to speak, in order to shed light into this aspect.

So I sat down to add "typical object angles" to my already present grip success statistics over a list of my most frequently or typically used grips. Then I did that in theory and then I figured, why not go and video some.

Thereby, a prosthetic hook as gripper device appears to be a lot more advanced, design wise, geometrically, in reducing device materials, bulk and design to approximate a really good overall use performance - also with regard to angular constraints - than the iLimb (which I have here also for as much testing as I like) and with that, many current commercial (or other) multi articulated hands.

In fact, prosthetic hands appear to be by far the older (and thus possibly less reflected) geometric design idea of a prosthetic arm's terminal device than the definitely more modern split hook. I may also go history hunting, but the claim that a split hook is old or outdated, and that therefore by inference a prosthetic hand is automatically new or more modern, as an idea, is wrong, particularly technically speaking. But also historically, to replace a hand with a hand is a straightforward design idea, that does not take any particular imagination, thus it is reportedly old, very old indeed, not new, like some uninformed people try to promote. Conversely, split hooks are so transformative and groundbreakingly new that not even the self-proclaimed transhumanists have understood, or adopted this concept. In a way, a split-hook efficiently unmasks a number of wrong beliefs - just look at their faces, listen to a few sentences of these mouths, and you know more about them than they ever wanted to admit.

The far more elegant reduction, also of angles and controls, to fit into the limited action and option constraints of an arm amputee, is certainly that of a body-powered split hook. It boils down the prosthetic needs to a successful sleek elegant reduction of a functional minimum, making it the ideal choice for anyone that wants a maximum of performance from a minimum of failure, cost, decay, bulk, futile grip attempts and total overhead. The subtle distinction is that a "body-powered split hook" is an entirely different beast than a passive hook, obviously, which probably no one ever noticed, particularly not the people that assumed that a body-powered split hook is best portrayed by installing a "Captain Hook" metaphor.

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[1] P. J. Kyberd, "Assessment of functionality of multifunction prosthetic hands," JPO: Journal of Prosthetics and Orthotics, vol. 29, iss. 3, pp. 103-111, 2017.
[Bibtex]
@article{kyberd2017assessment,
  title={Assessment of functionality of multifunction prosthetic hands},
  author={Kyberd, Peter J},
  journal={JPO: Journal of Prosthetics and Orthotics},
  volume={29},
  number={3},
  pages={103--111},
  year={2017},
  publisher={LWW}
}

Myoelectric prosthetic arms do not "really" function - so whom to sell them to? [cynical economic considerations]

Cite this article:
Wolf Schweitzer: Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Myoelectric prosthetic arms do not "really" function - so whom to sell them to? [cynical economic considerations]; published February 2, 2019, 15:11; URL: https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=9304.

BibTeX: @MISC{schweitzer_wolf_1574228328, author = {Wolf Schweitzer}, title = {{Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Myoelectric prosthetic arms do not "really" function - so whom to sell them to? [cynical economic considerations]}}, month = {February},year = {2019}, url = {https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=9304}}


Myoelectric prosthetic arms do not "really" work, we all know that, and it has been clear for decades.These factual aspects are difficult to make that problem go away like, poof. With that the more interesting question is: whom do we sell these to?

While selling to people that are gullible [link] seems to have a lot going for it, it is risky. A more sustained approach may base on taking actual risk factors for myoelectric failure into account:

  • Sweat
  • Weight
  • General error rate

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Real work - Real Men Don't Eat Quiche - Real Programmers Don't Use PASCAL [reference to popular culture]

Cite this article:
Wolf Schweitzer: Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Real work - Real Men Don't Eat Quiche - Real Programmers Don't Use PASCAL [reference to popular culture]; published December 6, 2018, 08:37; URL: https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=8850.

BibTeX: @MISC{schweitzer_wolf_1574228328, author = {Wolf Schweitzer}, title = {{Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Real work - Real Men Don't Eat Quiche - Real Programmers Don't Use PASCAL [reference to popular culture]}}, month = {December},year = {2018}, url = {https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=8850}}


When I mention real work as opposed to work one does in the role of a pansy boy, I certainly mean this both seriously and tongue in cheek.

Only if you spend your days with real work will you ever understand. You will be dripping wet from sweating. Your clothes will be so entirely smelly from external causes. Your materials will be in dire need for cleaning ever so comprehensively. You have worked for many hours. And you will go back to do it all over again. A prosthetic arm that is built to last 3 years dies within 5 seconds, 15 minutes, or 2 months - using stock commercial parts, it burns and dies like paper consumed by a slow fire, component by component.

Welcome to the world of real work.

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Case-study of a user-driven prosthetic arm design: bionic hand versus customized body-powered technology in a highly demanding work environment [article out]

Cite this article:
Wolf Schweitzer: Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Case-study of a user-driven prosthetic arm design: bionic hand versus customized body-powered technology in a highly demanding work environment [article out]; published January 4, 2018, 14:29; URL: https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=8066.

BibTeX: @MISC{schweitzer_wolf_1574228328, author = {Wolf Schweitzer}, title = {{Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Case-study of a user-driven prosthetic arm design: bionic hand versus customized body-powered technology in a highly demanding work environment [article out]}}, month = {January},year = {2018}, url = {https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=8066}}


 


This is a blog post of one of the rare focused and well based scientific journal articles that really explains how real work, body powered and myoelectric arms relate and go together for a unilateral right below elbow amputee in a physically demanding work environment.

The prior presentation of this paper [poster at Cybathlon symposium 2016], which had been more pragmatically worded (with me thinking people would know anyway), this was now written up as article and published. During that process, the reviewers clearly made great points of all kinds of aspects I never knew were not sky clear to everyone.

So maybe, writing a ~ 30 page case study with > 210 references does clarify stuff, at least potentially and for those that actually read it. But possibly, it still requires attention to even just read it.

Knowledge does not come easy, Highlander! (Nakano, in: Highlander III The Final Dimension)

 

If you are more interested in visionary posts, read about the gadget features of the prosthetic arm in Kingsmen: The Golden Circle [link]. And technically, myoelectric control did have it coming. That technology remained uncool for four decades [link].

Publication [link]

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Alex Roy and comparing junk with what "real men" wear [consumer products and society]

Cite this article:
Wolf Schweitzer: Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Alex Roy and comparing junk with what "real men" wear [consumer products and society]; published December 9, 2017, 18:25; URL: https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=7871.

BibTeX: @MISC{schweitzer_wolf_1574228328, author = {Wolf Schweitzer}, title = {{Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Alex Roy and comparing junk with what "real men" wear [consumer products and society]}}, month = {December},year = {2017}, url = {https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=7871}}


In one of his many videos, Alex Roy discusses style and coolness of automobiles with a TV show host. They establish that clearly, a car that transcends time in coolness and ultimate grunt has these two qualities: 

  • the most reliable in terms of motor and drivetrain, with adequate modern materials
  • the most fitting where necessary classical, conventional. established or optimized shape factor

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"Robotics"/"Cyborg"-ism and prosthetic arms - state of the art, and choice of role of prosthesis within own body image [analysis post]

Cite this article:
Wolf Schweitzer: Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - "Robotics"/"Cyborg"-ism and prosthetic arms - state of the art, and choice of role of prosthesis within own body image [analysis post]; published January 29, 2017, 17:23; URL: https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=7065.

BibTeX: @MISC{schweitzer_wolf_1574228328, author = {Wolf Schweitzer}, title = {{Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - "Robotics"/"Cyborg"-ism and prosthetic arms - state of the art, and choice of role of prosthesis within own body image [analysis post]}}, month = {January},year = {2017}, url = {https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=7065}}


Currently, "robotics" if not "bionics" and prosthetic arms are seen as a somewhat "hot topic". Even though some proponents sometimes appear to get lost in the apparent breadth of the field [link].

I am not following that research path myself too systematically (bwahaha), but I am interested in relevant aspects that fall off the truck, that are byproducts of that discussion, that may help me understand me or others better.

With "not  too systematically", I mean that I have tried and that I will try to walk new paths that have not been walked before: me introducing the Red Hand in 2009 was a first; introducing 2d cut pattern approaches to tackle 3d shape problems was not available anywhere else; wearing a semi-transparent white PVC glove to define the Becker Phantom hand, and getting Centri to make me red PVC gloves for my Becker hand was definitely another first; and me awkwardly mis-understanding the Cybathlon as an actually technical competition and as that being the only one to actually provide a technical write-up (an amputee "discussing" technical research, uiuiui!) definitely was a first (in fact we have not seen anyone else actually sitting their butt down and really telling us what, technically, we get to see there for that prosthetic arms race, which is like having a soccer match but no one understanding leave alone explaining how kicks, balls and possibly passes actually work). And, providing user driven developments for real work applications was also presented by me, in person, at that Cybathlon 2016 Symposium. Not that there were many like-minded individuals, no no.

So let us cut to the chase.

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Grip strengths (measured results)

Cite this article:
Wolf Schweitzer: Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Grip strengths (measured results); published January 18, 2017, 20:09; URL: https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=7085.

BibTeX: @MISC{schweitzer_wolf_1574228328, author = {Wolf Schweitzer}, title = {{Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Grip strengths (measured results)}}, month = {January},year = {2017}, url = {https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=7085}}


Using a Camry EH101 electronic hand dynamometer, I went through a few prosthetic terminal devices for my arm to see just how strong they were. And I added a baseline for my (human) left hand and my (bare) stump.

This certainly provides a base for a range of discussions later. Or previous ones ; )

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Towards Extreme Cyborging (EC) microworks: very small things [grip mechanics theory, parametrization and then testing side by side - Trautman hook, Hosmer Mod 5 hook, TRS Prehensor, Touch Bionics iLimb revolution]

Cite this article:
Wolf Schweitzer: Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Towards Extreme Cyborging (EC) microworks: very small things [grip mechanics theory, parametrization and then testing side by side - Trautman hook, Hosmer Mod 5 hook, TRS Prehensor, Touch Bionics iLimb revolution]; published December 28, 2016, 17:52; URL: https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=7010.

BibTeX: @MISC{schweitzer_wolf_1574228328, author = {Wolf Schweitzer}, title = {{Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Towards Extreme Cyborging (EC) microworks: very small things [grip mechanics theory, parametrization and then testing side by side - Trautman hook, Hosmer Mod 5 hook, TRS Prehensor, Touch Bionics iLimb revolution]}}, month = {December},year = {2016}, url = {https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=7010}}


Small things to be picked up, side by side demo with other prosthetic devices.

Yes, very small things.

"It is the little things that count", they said. "The little things are important", they said. They all said that. But behold, their "bionic" apparatus cannot handle little things! "Why is a hook not evil", they wondered. And a storm of little demo videos came upon them. Deep into the myriad of grip mechanics this went.

"Get a grip on grips", he said.

This totally bypasses the fact that after laying down real life consequences for what I call Extreme Cyborging, I just finished building my first own steel Trautman hook, and all just with shape information from the internet. Yeah, you read that right. I did not build yet another one of the ubiquitous funny hands that promises to change my life or what it is these 3D printed hands now do - no. I sit on the demand and I sit on the technology and what is it that I do? See? This is what should really disturb you - because given the current signs of the times, it should feel deeply wrong on many levels. To you. But then, we were likely living on different planets all along, and maybe it is time you realize that too ; ) After we knew since years in detail what the Cybathlon showed us yet again, with glory but not with any improvement, it is yet again up to us, the users, to push further into what is, what can be, and what matters. And honestly? We have seen far enough funny hand videos.

What we have not seen is the Rebirth of The Cool. The Rebirth of an absolutely insane gripper. Physically. In 3D printed steel. The Trautman hook is such a device. And I went for it just because I can.
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#userdrivendesign Prosthetic arm design: i-Limb Revolution versus customized body powered arm in a work environment combining bodily exertion, wide temperature ranges, wide body motion ranges, heavy workload and subtle grips [Cybathlon Symposium, Oct 6 2016, Poster A12]

Cite this article:
Wolf Schweitzer: Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - #userdrivendesign Prosthetic arm design: i-Limb Revolution versus customized body powered arm in a work environment combining bodily exertion, wide temperature ranges, wide body motion ranges, heavy workload and subtle grips [Cybathlon Symposium, Oct 6 2016, Poster A12]; published October 2, 2016, 13:05; URL: https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=6342.

BibTeX: @MISC{schweitzer_wolf_1574228328, author = {Wolf Schweitzer}, title = {{Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - #userdrivendesign Prosthetic arm design: i-Limb Revolution versus customized body powered arm in a work environment combining bodily exertion, wide temperature ranges, wide body motion ranges, heavy workload and subtle grips [Cybathlon Symposium, Oct 6 2016, Poster A12]}}, month = {October},year = {2016}, url = {https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=6342}}


PDF of poster presentation @ Cybathlon Symposium Oct 06 2016 @ Kloten.

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What prosthetic arm to use? [flow chart / algorithm]

Cite this article:
Wolf Schweitzer: Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - What prosthetic arm to use? [flow chart / algorithm]; published April 17, 2016, 14:11; URL: https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=5844.

BibTeX: @MISC{schweitzer_wolf_1574228328, author = {Wolf Schweitzer}, title = {{Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - What prosthetic arm to use? [flow chart / algorithm]}}, month = {April},year = {2016}, url = {https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=5844}}


Algorithm to chose best option for prosthetic arm, based on eight years of consecutive experience and extensive hard work.

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Uncanny valley and its vicious impact on researchers, media and amputees [projected vision spaces]

Cite this article:
Wolf Schweitzer: Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Uncanny valley and its vicious impact on researchers, media and amputees [projected vision spaces]; published November 11, 2014, 18:42; URL: https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=3677.

BibTeX: @MISC{schweitzer_wolf_1574228328, author = {Wolf Schweitzer}, title = {{Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Uncanny valley and its vicious impact on researchers, media and amputees [projected vision spaces]}}, month = {November},year = {2014}, url = {https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=3677}}


Appearances and social effects are closely interlinked. As one example, clothes have always had a major impact on social interactions. Read a good book if this is new to you. Along the same lines, even appearances of cars, computers, gadgets et cetera are often heavily discussed. Manufacturers spend a lot of money for looks of consumer goods. If you want to buy a bicycle today, one selling point is the color being particularly robust - even though the frame cannot rust and the color is of really no practical use. So, appearances and social effects are a real thing these days. They create major ripples.

With that, re-enter the uncanny valley.

Appearances are the end-all-be-all for many aspects of prosthetic hands and arms. At first, every now and then, or whenever, you just do not want to stand out as arm amputee, and, with that, you want to look and be enabled. Appearance - looking inconspicuous, looking enabled - every now and so often are a prosthetic arm's sole raison d'etre. Also, and painfully so, that is where prosthetic hands and arms all die that sudden instantaneous all encompassing total death of utter failure. There is just no way to get this really right. Of course, no one ever made an uncompromising attempt at building a realistically appearing prosthetic hand, but then, that problem is intractable. Read a good blog entry about prosthetic arm appearance testing, if that is new to you.

As appearance requirements for prosthetic hands, wrist and arms are massive in their impact overall, it pays well to now dedicate some more attention to this aspect rather than considering the big picture [link].

Because if you cannot get the looks of your prosthetic arm right, you start out as the outcast no matter what. You may not end up there but that is a bit of the problem - negotiating back "apparent" competence. And so from that moment on, the deck of cards is dealt in a totally different way. Look at it like that: if I am already put into the awkward position to explain the ill disposition of my handicapped arm, total wreckage enabled hooks are a far better and plausible display of "enabled" than a high pitched stir of slowly animated fragile 70s B-movie appealing pansy boy hand. That is, if I am already put into that awkward position to explain that.

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Ripping through the SHAP Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure [DAFUQ - executive summary: SHAP probably useless for prostheses]

Cite this article:
Wolf Schweitzer: Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Ripping through the SHAP Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure [DAFUQ - executive summary: SHAP probably useless for prostheses]; published May 30, 2014, 19:55; URL: https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=3043.

BibTeX: @MISC{schweitzer_wolf_1574228328, author = {Wolf Schweitzer}, title = {{Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Ripping through the SHAP Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure [DAFUQ - executive summary: SHAP probably useless for prostheses]}}, month = {May},year = {2014}, url = {https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=3043}}


The SHAP Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure - as anyone might know - is an ill devised test for the purpose of prosthetic hand testing inasmuch as real prostheses used for actual jobs and tasks are concerned [link].

As we shall see right from the outset, a clear understanding of the problem at hand (what constitutes a useful test for bi manual activities?) is crucial. And I should know because of activities that leave any "extreme load" prosthesis far behind:

  • IKEA Pax system (total of over 540 kg materials installed in 2 days) [link] (measurable activity with standard object and defined goal)
  • Trimming hedges in direct sun and summer heat at over 37 degrees C [link] (clear task definition, precisely definable tools and physical environment)
  • Biking up the Stelvio Pass (highest paved alpine passroad, over 2700 meters above sea level) [link] (very standardized task, suitable for competitive bike races as well)
  • ah, search this site yourself, will you; there is a sitemap [link] or at least read through all the way to the bottom here

The Cybathlon 2016 [link]  currently is aimed towards using the SHAP with the goal to push the development of "bionic" lookalike prostheses, that is, to push development not of actually functional prostheses per se, but to promote the overpriced gadget track that so many manufacturers have fallen for recently. A more detailed review can be found here (in German) and here.

Initially, they wrote: "B. SHAP Course ADL -- This course is based on the Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure (SHAP), which incorporates different object shapes and sizes that require the use of different grips (spherical, tripod, power, lateral, tip, extension)" [link].

They amended this in the meantime, but that does not change the fact that the test goal for prosthetic arms is elsewhere altogether.

Thus, we read the very revealing ANSI note (link):

New York, May 16, 2014 - In most athletic competitions, using technology to give yourself a competitive edge over other athletes could get you disqualified. That’s not the case for participants in the Cybathlon, an international athletic event scheduled to be held in Switzerland in October 2016. The event – which will feature athletes with disabilities who make use of prosthetics, exoskeletons, and other assistive devices – will award medals to the winning athletes, known as “pilots,” and to the companies that developed the technologies they used. In the run-up to this unprecedented competition, standards can provide manufacturers and others with useful guidance regarding the safety and effectiveness of the devices used by the event’s athletes. The Cybathlon will feature six different events involving a wide range of technologies and athletic disciplines, including a foot race featuring pilots with leg prostheses. An International Standard developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) can provide prosthetics manufacturers and others with important guidance. ISO 10328:2006, Prosthetics - Structural testing of lower-limb prostheses - Requirements and test methods, includes strength tests for lower-limb prostheses, including above-knee and below-knee devices. The standard was developed by ISO Technical Committee (TC) 168, Prosthetics and orthotics; ASTM International, an American National Standards Institute (ANSI) member and audited designator, serves as the ANSI-accredited U.S. Technical Advisory Group (TAG) administrator to ISO TC 168. The Cybathlon’s planned bicycle race will feature athletes with spinal cord injuries using Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) to pilot their vehicles around the race track. ASTM F2711-08(2012), Standard Test Methods for Bicycle Frames, could provide important support for the manufacturers of the FES bicycles needed for the event. The standard, developed by ASTM International, establishes procedures for testing the structural performance properties of bicycle frames. Another planned event will require participants to maneuver powered wheelchairs backwards and forwards through an obstacle course. The Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive Technology Society of North America (RESNA), an ANSI member and accredited standards developer, has developed an American National Standard that provides important guidance related to the seats used in wheelchairs. ANSI/RESNA WC-3:2013, RESNA American National Standard for Wheelchairs - Volume 3: Wheelchair Seating, is focused on postural support and tissue integrity management assistance for wheelchair users. Perhaps the most unusual event planned for the Cybathlon is the brain-computer interface race, where paralyzed pilots will control vehicles in a computer game with their mind. One promising method of mind-to-computer communication uses electroencephalographs to record electrical brain activity, providing a basis for mind-driven control of computers and other machines. IEC 60601-2-26 Ed. 3.0 b:2012, Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-26: Particular requirements for the basic safety and essential performance of electroencephalographs, provides safety and performance requirements for electroencephalographs in the clinical environment. This standard was developed by International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) TC 62, Electrical equipment in medical practice, Subcommittee (SC) 62D, Electromedical equipment. The U.S. plays a strong leadership role in the work of TC 62, with Dr. Rodolfo Godinez of the United States serving as chair. ANSI member the Advanced Medical Technology Association (AdvaMed) serves as the United States National Committee (USNC)-approved TAG Administrator for IEC TC 62. The U.S. also holds the secretariat duties for SC 62D, which the USNC has delegated to the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI), an ANSI member and accredited standards developer; AAMI also serves as the USNC-approved U.S. TAG Administrator to SC 62D. This exciting event promises to give athletes with disabilities an important new opportunity to showcase their skills while also encouraging the creation and refinement of technologies beneficial to many other persons with disabilities. And when developing the devices that will assist Cybathlon pilots in their athletic feats, participating companies will have an array of helpful standards to draw from. To learn more about the Cybathlon, visit its official site.

Interestingly, the ANSI author does not mention the prosthetic arm / hand race with one single word. Not one word! This in plain American English is as clear a statement as there can be a statement. However, this blog-website here is more verbally explicit.

Instead of just keeping my mouth shut, though, I will critique the attempt of using the SHAP or such, the publicizing, the maneuver so to speak, as there are rather constructive insights to be gained by doing so [link].

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