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Category: Cybathlon 2016

Prosthetic split-hooks are by far the MORE MODERN concept than prosthetic hands and they did not take long to get vilified [what you all got wrong about history]

Cite this article:
Wolf Schweitzer: Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Prosthetic split-hooks are by far the MORE MODERN concept than prosthetic hands and they did not take long to get vilified [what you all got wrong about history]; published March 3, 2019, 23:01; URL: https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=9423.

BibTeX: @MISC{schweitzer_wolf_1571223476, author = {Wolf Schweitzer}, title = {{Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Prosthetic split-hooks are by far the MORE MODERN concept than prosthetic hands and they did not take long to get vilified [what you all got wrong about history]}}, month = {March},year = {2019}, url = {https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=9423}}


We are told by prosthetic R&D aficionados, by film makers, fiction authors, popular culture and whatnot, that a prosthetic hook (i.e., split-hook) is "old", and a prosthetic hand is "new". Also, we get told that myoelectric arms are very modern in terms of control technology, whereas some recent media and prosthetic manufacturers even called myoelectric control "brain control".

None of that is true, quite obviously, while we realize that reality is rather different. Rather strikingly different, in fact.

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Was ist mit Cybathlon@SCHOOL moeglicherweise problematisch?

Cite this article:
Wolf Schweitzer: Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Was ist mit Cybathlon@SCHOOL moeglicherweise problematisch?; published March 2, 2019, 11:39; URL: https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=9404.

BibTeX: @MISC{schweitzer_wolf_1571223476, author = {Wolf Schweitzer}, title = {{Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Was ist mit Cybathlon@SCHOOL moeglicherweise problematisch?}}, month = {March},year = {2019}, url = {https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=9404}}


Cybathlon@SCHOOL ist ein Programm, das Behinderte, Armamputierte auch, als "Material" bezeichnet und anpreist.

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Disability and the public - prosthetic arms and more: do we appear "competent"? (review)

Cite this article:
Wolf Schweitzer: Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Disability and the public - prosthetic arms and more: do we appear "competent"? (review); published December 7, 2018, 15:50; URL: https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=8812.

BibTeX: @MISC{schweitzer_wolf_1571223476, author = {Wolf Schweitzer}, title = {{Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Disability and the public - prosthetic arms and more: do we appear "competent"? (review)}}, month = {December},year = {2018}, url = {https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=8812}}


The current view of us, what the general public thinks of us, seems to be a major aspect. Of "us", yes.

The research question for this armchair analyst thus will be: are we - arm amputees in specific, and, as people with a visible physical handicap more generally, more broadly as disabled people generally, seen as competent people?

Generally, the answer seems to be a clear "NO" right from the outset.

This should not come as a shock. There are good reasons to believe that, great reasons to make that plausible, perfect reasons to justify that statement. With that, there may be exceptions to that -  people that see through society's fairytales of disability, horror and fears, but they are usually the exception.

As I had figured out quite early into my enquiries into that issue, that this aspect is of absolutely no further practical concern not because it is not disconcerting - but because I cannot change it. And that is a rapid, lean and cynical logical consequence, that I stopped caring about what other people think of me based on, say, visual impression of my prosthetic arm. I may thus safely focus on function and comfort, sustainability and cost, without worrying too much about whether other people treat me as more or less competent based on my looks. Not because it would not be cool to take influence but because it is of no matter as to the target dimension: the tendendy to disregard any mental capacity of people with physical handicap appears to be implemented in many people's thinking outside of any actual experiences. And regardless of what type of prosthesis I wear.

If anything, I might optimize my appearance by simply trying to look reasonably neat.

But to bend over backwards for what really we have to concede are actually strange people? If anything, can we hack their brains?

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Cybathlon 2020: introducing the BLUE LIGHT specials for the prosthetic arm challenges ahead [terminology, concept]

Cite this article:
Wolf Schweitzer: Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Cybathlon 2020: introducing the BLUE LIGHT specials for the prosthetic arm challenges ahead [terminology, concept]; published May 16, 2018, 09:52; URL: https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=8315.

BibTeX: @MISC{schweitzer_wolf_1571223476, author = {Wolf Schweitzer}, title = {{Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Cybathlon 2020: introducing the BLUE LIGHT specials for the prosthetic arm challenges ahead [terminology, concept]}}, month = {May},year = {2018}, url = {https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=8315}}


"The Cybathlon 2016 demonstrated, in a comprehensive and entertaining manner, how people with disabili­ties can employ assistive devices." Novak, Domen, Peter Wolf, and Eugenio Guglielmelli. "Cybathlon 2016: Showcasing Advances in Assistive Technologies Through Competition [From the Guest Editors]." IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine 24.4 (2017): 24-122.

An individual that just wants to stare at amputees to be entertained by them has no business being anywhere near rehabilitation, leave alone actual products, or people. Wolf Schweitzer, 2008.

Insights derived from the Cybathlon 2020 plan - the BLUE LIGHT Special Paragraphs

The proposed Cybathlon 2020 race setup (link) is out and the prosthetic arm race is relevant to read.

Seeing as if nothing tangible, visible, perceptible or legible appeared to have resulted from the Cybathlon for the benefit of prosthetic arms (that would have been the goal of the prosthetic arm race though, right, better prosthetic arms), the observations end up falling more under a sociological subject than a technical.

Therefore, I will introduce a category of BLUE LIGHT specials that - in that form as considered here - may be new: they combine sociological northern hemisphere aspects with technical aspects and considerations [1].

The Extreme Cyborging labels that I introduced a while ago, find increasing correlates here, with the BLUE LIGHT specials.However, as we shall see, these BLUE LIGHT specials may be more relevant than meets the eye.

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[1] D. Goodley and L. Swartz, "The place of disability," in Disability in the Global South, Springer, 2016, pp. 69-83.
[Bibtex]
@incollection{goodley2016place,
  title={The place of disability},
  author={Goodley, Dan and Swartz, Leslie},
  booktitle={Disability in the Global South},
  pages={69--83},
  year={2016},
  publisher={Springer}
}

Case-study of a user-driven prosthetic arm design: bionic hand versus customized body-powered technology in a highly demanding work environment [article out]

Cite this article:
Wolf Schweitzer: Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Case-study of a user-driven prosthetic arm design: bionic hand versus customized body-powered technology in a highly demanding work environment [article out]; published January 4, 2018, 14:29; URL: https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=8066.

BibTeX: @MISC{schweitzer_wolf_1571223476, author = {Wolf Schweitzer}, title = {{Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Case-study of a user-driven prosthetic arm design: bionic hand versus customized body-powered technology in a highly demanding work environment [article out]}}, month = {January},year = {2018}, url = {https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=8066}}


 


This is a blog post of one of the rare focused and well based scientific journal articles that really explains how real work, body powered and myoelectric arms relate and go together for a unilateral right below elbow amputee in a physically demanding work environment.

The prior presentation of this paper [poster at Cybathlon symposium 2016], which had been more pragmatically worded (with me thinking people would know anyway), this was now written up as article and published. During that process, the reviewers clearly made great points of all kinds of aspects I never knew were not sky clear to everyone.

So maybe, writing a ~ 30 page case study with > 210 references does clarify stuff, at least potentially and for those that actually read it. But possibly, it still requires attention to even just read it.

Knowledge does not come easy, Highlander! (Nakano, in: Highlander III The Final Dimension)

 

If you are more interested in visionary posts, read about the gadget features of the prosthetic arm in Kingsmen: The Golden Circle [link]. And technically, myoelectric control did have it coming. That technology remained uncool for four decades [link].

Publication [link]

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Functional failures of prosthetic hands at the Cybathlon 2016 [details]

Cite this article:
Wolf Schweitzer: Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Functional failures of prosthetic hands at the Cybathlon 2016 [details]; published October 16, 2016, 13:23; URL: https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=7655.

BibTeX: @MISC{schweitzer_wolf_1571223476, author = {Wolf Schweitzer}, title = {{Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Functional failures of prosthetic hands at the Cybathlon 2016 [details]}}, month = {October},year = {2016}, url = {https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=7655}}


The Cybathlon 2016 was accompanied with publically broadcast video documentation of the event.

It is just not just as systematic as one would wish for a comprehensive research and development setting, but then, it was not an academic research event, but a publicity performance. But still, it contains a plethora of technical references.

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Der Cybathlon 2016 wurde bei den Armprothesen von einem Mann mit "Hook" gewonnen [#research #surprise #bodypowered]

Cite this article:
Wolf Schweitzer: Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Der Cybathlon 2016 wurde bei den Armprothesen von einem Mann mit "Hook" gewonnen [#research #surprise #bodypowered]; published October 11, 2016, 18:34; URL: https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=6670.

BibTeX: @MISC{schweitzer_wolf_1571223476, author = {Wolf Schweitzer}, title = {{Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Der Cybathlon 2016 wurde bei den Armprothesen von einem Mann mit "Hook" gewonnen [#research #surprise #bodypowered]}}, month = {October},year = {2016}, url = {https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=6670}}


2 Comments

Ich weiss jetzt nicht, ob Sie das mitbekommen haben. Und ob Sie begreifen was da passiert ist.

Aber am Cybathlon 2016 (Cybathlon, ETH, NCCR Robotics), einer Art Behindertenschaulaufen ohne besonderen  wissenschaftlichen aber dafuer sehr publikumswirksamen Hintergrund [wieso/was:link] mit mehrheitlich durch das Patronat der ETH suggerierten "High-Tech-Hintergrund" gewann ein Mann das Armprothesenrennen, der einen "Hook" trug [siehe detaillierte Griffanalyse, link]. Arschcool, mit 67 ein Senior, dort auch klar der älteste.

Fehlerfrei und schnell.

bodypoweredclothespins

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The Cybathlon as iconic Trash Culture modern day Circus show: arm amputees, arms race and technical considerations regarding specific applicants [proper research domain assignment, pre-race evaluation of critical check points, detailed in-race grip analysis, cultural domain considerations, gonzo race report]

Cite this article:
Wolf Schweitzer: Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - The Cybathlon as iconic Trash Culture modern day Circus show: arm amputees, arms race and technical considerations regarding specific applicants [proper research domain assignment, pre-race evaluation of critical check points, detailed in-race grip analysis, cultural domain considerations, gonzo race report]; published October 7, 2016, 17:28; URL: https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=6378.

BibTeX: @MISC{schweitzer_wolf_1571223476, author = {Wolf Schweitzer}, title = {{Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - The Cybathlon as iconic Trash Culture modern day Circus show: arm amputees, arms race and technical considerations regarding specific applicants [proper research domain assignment, pre-race evaluation of critical check points, detailed in-race grip analysis, cultural domain considerations, gonzo race report]}}, month = {October},year = {2016}, url = {https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=6378}}


Executive summary

  • Arm amputation is more a social (and complex) than just a manual handicap in many daily situations. Therefore many approaches to dealing with it are social and socially motivated, including hand color. You did land on a right below elbow amputation website, like, apparently, so that is the angle from which this comes. Also we made sure this is the title of this website. Different aspects may apply to higher level and bilateral arm amputation, but that is not the target of this website.
  • Conversely, most actually manual problems are not major. What heavily impacts many unilateral arm amputees after 5-8 years or maybe after 10 -20 years, is the impact of overuse of the intact arm and asymmetry related problems. A rational approach to prevent that is to use prosthetic arms that excel particularly at the heavy to extreme range of physical exposure. Those are typically modern body powered arms. These use well established control principles, but can be made from very modern materials. They suffer from medial representations that are largely negative ("Captain Hook"). Myoelectric arms are termed "high tech" simply because they may contain a battery and motors, but they suffer from a battery of intractable or constrained problem combinations.
  • For that, the ETH has so far not been necessary to add to the field of prosthetic arms, but trash culture approaches have a lot going for them regardless of that. My own practical and pragmatic research (see also below) contains such elements and now, the ETH also is proud organizer of a Circus freak show (which in essence is an event that lacks academic approaches and reduces intellectual participation to staring).
  • Neither the ETH nor the NCCR Robotics ever managed to acknowledge that or develop even the tiniest solution to solve just about anything in that matter (remember the title of this page?). That is perfectly OK as quite possibly, myoelectric arms are uninteresting from an actual researcher point of view once one understands the full scope of problems, and body powered arms are uninteresting because their problems are a combination of mechanics, material science, and context dependent issues that usually require deep insights which is currently performed by a small relatively close knit international community of amputees, developers and researchers.
  • Given their academic background claims, ETH or NCCR based approaches could and should have focused on studying intricate differences and aspects of prosthetic arm success and failure during the Cybathlon competition in all situations, pre-race and in-race. I mean: if you claim you want to do, or push, research, better sit down and work on a really detailed introductory explanation to show that we all see how much you understand what detailed features we are all looking for. I am most definitely all for that, but I do not shy away from weird staring contest evaluations either. These define an amputee's daily reality more than you might like.
  • But to no surprise, the technical research representatives neither prepared, nor carried out, such, so any technical analysis of the race that then was presented to the public to actually increase some real understanding for the effectively present research problems and real world issues so it will never be possible in sufficient detail or write any great scientific paper about it. Or, not from how it looks now.
  • Thus, academically (not industrially, not as bystander, person that loves to stare at arm amputees or spectator), the event of the Cybathlon prosthetic arm race was a thoroughly missed opportunity if not a failure.
  • This does not mean that the Cybathlon as such was meaningless; it just showed that body powered technology (TRS, TRS prehensor) as very calmly and perfectly performed and carried out by a 67 year old man (Bob Radocy) that did not visibly hurry but chewed gum for the whole event left all "robotic" competition behind - while I had warned the organizers from a one-dimensional overly simplistic evaluation two years ago. I had always told them exactly what Claudia Breidbach said in her statement after the finals race: you cannot compare, across various different arm amputation with adapted different devices, what a good performance is. They knew as they had been extensively informed beforehand. The search for what prosthetic arms should be able to actually do well remains ongoing though, the odyssey apparently continues with a Cybathlon 2020.
  • And while any evidence based rational mind would now more than ever (a) want a body powered prosthesis and (b) further research on that type of prosthesis, it was the very clear aim by the organizers to not include these arms in the race at all, until I had imposed myself onto the organizers, had a very serious word with them and convinced them to admit also body powered arms which they did.
  • The Swiss National Foundation (SNF) is strongly advised to look into the intricate aspects of all failures of (a) research opportunities missed and (b) strategic solutions actually needed in prosthetic arm and hand field, (c) appoint very competent coordinators and advisors there and (d) not finance silly "competitions" such as this that do not further science at all or (e) finance more myoelectric nonsense.
  • All the same, the Cybathlon was a great experience in how ETH hype, tech media hype and gadget hand industry hype take a royal tanking against real life based real men, and, if you need a short but intensive read on the reasons why the myoelectric arms missed out today, check my Cybathlon Symposium scientific contribution, you will find there more relevant text than in many other places.
  • I do not hate myoelectric arms. Personally I must have invested more finances into my own myoelectric gadgets than into my body powered components. However, that does not make me blind, dumb or gadget happy. I still test, look, think and analyze. I still work on finding better ways, solutions, parts or usage tricks for both systems. But then, coming from an engineering perspective (funny you come here to read that) - finding the exact problem, identifying the exact issue, has been placed before being ablt to solving it. And the simple beauty of engineering is, that whatever your attempt at covering up your tricks, at the end of the day, the contraption either works, or it does not.
  • While Professor Riener verbally once (1) at the Cybathlon race itself mentioned the fact that cable powered technology won (we were there, see Gonzo report below), they made sure none of that leaked to the Swiss television, or BBC, or newspapers, or IEEE, or other press. They simply buried the fact that they were left eating dust by some very athletic older gentleman wearing a body powered prosthetic arm. Because that is like having someone in sandals and swim trunks run up on Mount Everest. They do not report that as it is seen as putting the other efforts to shame rather than being seen as someone, something, a situation to finally learn from. And that puts massive question marks to the news writers, tech representatives and researchers: is what you do something we have to believe, because quite clearly, facts are not consistent with it? Do you represent a type of religion or belief system?
  • Not all are like that. The Scientific American, a journal that I am a subscriber and reader of since many, many years, reports extremely well, and explains the actual technical aspects of the winning device.
  • The Cybathlon was announced as competition that allows visitors to "understand the issues surrounding disability in a practical way". When not even the organizers understand these issues, and not even in a theoretical way, how on earth can they assume an ability to instruct visitors so they understand disability issues?

Trash Culture, the Cybathlon prosthetic arms race show Circus, and other prosthetic limb Trash Culture approaches

"Mommy, do I have to repeat every mistake others made before me myself?" - "Yes, one can learn so much from mistakes".

Don't get me wrong here.

Trash Culture is a great contemporary experience. If anything, this is what gets people talking. But it is not research or academic. This is not at all a critique, but an attempt to better localize this strange event in context of prosthetic arms, amputation and society.

It is just a Circus.

To unmake it a Circus and Make It a Technical Contest, a bit more attention to detail would have be needed. A lot more attention to detail would have made it a great event. That all was missed.

Now, I will supplement you with the required extra details below to make it a research observation despite the organizers successful attempts to keep it simple, hip, sexy and trashy .... but let that not spoil the fun for you.

boot

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#userdrivendesign Prosthetic arm design: i-Limb Revolution versus customized body powered arm in a work environment combining bodily exertion, wide temperature ranges, wide body motion ranges, heavy workload and subtle grips [Cybathlon Symposium, Oct 6 2016, Poster A12]

Cite this article:
Wolf Schweitzer: Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - #userdrivendesign Prosthetic arm design: i-Limb Revolution versus customized body powered arm in a work environment combining bodily exertion, wide temperature ranges, wide body motion ranges, heavy workload and subtle grips [Cybathlon Symposium, Oct 6 2016, Poster A12]; published October 2, 2016, 13:05; URL: https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=6342.

BibTeX: @MISC{schweitzer_wolf_1571223476, author = {Wolf Schweitzer}, title = {{Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - #userdrivendesign Prosthetic arm design: i-Limb Revolution versus customized body powered arm in a work environment combining bodily exertion, wide temperature ranges, wide body motion ranges, heavy workload and subtle grips [Cybathlon Symposium, Oct 6 2016, Poster A12]}}, month = {October},year = {2016}, url = {https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=6342}}


PDF of poster presentation @ Cybathlon Symposium Oct 06 2016 @ Kloten.

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Disability as spectacle? [tracing everyday experiences to follow this proposed aspect]

Cite this article:
Wolf Schweitzer: Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Disability as spectacle? [tracing everyday experiences to follow this proposed aspect]; published June 14, 2016, 19:37; URL: https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=6165.

BibTeX: @MISC{schweitzer_wolf_1571223476, author = {Wolf Schweitzer}, title = {{Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Disability as spectacle? [tracing everyday experiences to follow this proposed aspect]}}, month = {June},year = {2016}, url = {https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=6165}}


An upcoming conference seems to hit more precisely than any other contemporary "spectacle" - from body "hacking" (featuring people that quite simply wear stock item devices) over "workshops" where participants are filmed or photographed (but do not get systematic solutions to all aspects that are shown) to "bionic" limb featurettes - the subject at the very core of the current preoccupation of society with disability is not help or support but focus. Support may only be part of making things appear right.

Actual, true, and dedicated improvement or help is not rendered. It is at best shown as sugar coating, thrown in as minimal excuse, offered as pretense, but not made a didactic or technical focus. We now need to delineate real work, real support from sugar coated symbolism that has different goals and purposes.

What is *featured* here - in that conference - is the "spectacle" aspect. What is featured in some odd "bionic" arm workshop is exactly that: they call it "help" - but they invite television to show how good they are and the focus is not on actual function but on "how it looks and appears to the public". They call it "support", but its main feature is a live stream of discussions on media channels all the while the hook remains the best prosthetic ever.

disabilityasspectacle

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Was bringt der Cybathlon 2016? (kurze Uebersicht)

Cite this article:
Wolf Schweitzer: Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Was bringt der Cybathlon 2016? (kurze Uebersicht); published May 31, 2016, 23:59; URL: https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=5276.

BibTeX: @MISC{schweitzer_wolf_1571223476, author = {Wolf Schweitzer}, title = {{Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Was bringt der Cybathlon 2016? (kurze Uebersicht)}}, month = {May},year = {2016}, url = {https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=5276}}


2 Comments

Was ist dieses Cybathlon denn?

(Updates zum Thema: hier)

Der Cybathlon 2016 (link) ist ein Versuch, durch Aktivismus der Oeffentlichkeit unter anderem das für die Oeffentlichkeit weitgehend irrelevante (link) Problem der aus Anwendersicht eher leidigen (Problemzyklus - link) Armprothesen näherzubringen - ohne dabei aber jegliche effektive Forschung zur ingenieurtechnischen oder auch sozialen Verbesserung der Stellung Armamputierter auch nur irgendwie ins Auge zu fassen.

Dies verwundert insofern nicht, als die Organisatoren zwar anscheinend die ETH Zürich repräsentieren, aber auf ihrer Publikationsliste keinerlei erkennbare nennenswerte (Sie befinden sich hier auf was für einer Webseite? Was wird hier als "nennenswert" angesehen?) Errungenschaften auf dem Gebiet der Armprothetik vorzuweisen haben und auch im persönlichen Umgang eher wenig aktives freundliches Interesse an der Kernthematik an den Tag legen. Es wäre damit denkbar, dass man sie zu diesem Anlass "verknurrt" oder "verbrummt" hat. Es geht dann allerdings nicht ohne Kritik.

dancedancedance

"Man ist da heute ja, äh, sehr weit". (Anonymer Akademiker) 

Der Cybathlon ist finanziert vom NCCR Robotics und stellt damit einen Werbefeldzug für teure - aber nicht "brauchbare" - "Hightech"-Prothesen dar, insbesondere dabei für Forschung auf dem Gebiet der teuren, schweren, aber weitgehend für reale bimanuelle einigermassen schwere - also sog. Echte - Arbeitstätigkeit nutzlosen sogenannten "bionischen" myoelektrischen Prothesen (für beispielhafte Anwendungen und Vertiefung siehe hier).

Dies kontrastiert damit, dass die universitären Forschungseinrichtungen der Schweiz auf dem Gebiet der Armprothetik - darunter verstehe ich diejenige Produktesorte, welche zur Berufs- und Alltagsrehabilitation Armamputierter verwendet wird, welche von Unfall-, Kranken- oder Invalidätsversicherungen übernommen werden und somit den gesetzlichen Anforderungen genügen - nichts (also: nichts) vorzuweisen haben.

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Missing hand, hook, and perceived risk [sociology of fables leaking into modern day perceptions]

Cite this article:
Wolf Schweitzer: Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Missing hand, hook, and perceived risk [sociology of fables leaking into modern day perceptions]; published May 30, 2016, 22:40; URL: https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=4681.

BibTeX: @MISC{schweitzer_wolf_1571223476, author = {Wolf Schweitzer}, title = {{Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Missing hand, hook, and perceived risk [sociology of fables leaking into modern day perceptions]}}, month = {May},year = {2016}, url = {https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=4681}}


Fables and fairy tales carry narratives whose symbolism swaps over into apparently secular perceptions [1]. In other words, even societies that claim to be educated, enlightened and secular typically risk to follow myths - unless they take very specific care to not get trapped there.

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[1] S. White, "Severed Hands as Symbols of Humanity in Legend and Popular Narratives," , 2014.
[Bibtex]
@article{white2014severed,
  title={Severed Hands as Symbols of Humanity in Legend and Popular Narratives},
  author={White, Scott},
  year={2014}
}

Wieso ist das, was die Veranstalter zum Cybathlon 2016 schreiben dummblöd? (Technologieerklärung)

Cite this article:
Wolf Schweitzer: Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Wieso ist das, was die Veranstalter zum Cybathlon 2016 schreiben dummblöd? (Technologieerklärung); published May 30, 2016, 18:18; URL: https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=5521.

BibTeX: @MISC{schweitzer_wolf_1571223476, author = {Wolf Schweitzer}, title = {{Technical Below Elbow Amputee Issues - Wieso ist das, was die Veranstalter zum Cybathlon 2016 schreiben dummblöd? (Technologieerklärung)}}, month = {May},year = {2016}, url = {https://www.swisswuff.ch/tech/?p=5521}}


Auf einer Webseite des Cybathlon 2016 (ausführlicher Kommentar hier) schreiben die Veranstalter (Impressum: Prof. Dr. Robert Riener; Redaktion: Robinson Kundert) folgenden Textabschnitt:

  • "Von Captain Hook zu Iron Man? Begeben Sie sich in unserem Museum auf eine Reise von den Anfängen der Unterstützungstechnik bis hin zur Gegenwart. Erfahren Sie, wie sich Prothesen und Rollstühle in all den Jahren entwickelt und verbessert haben. PluSport zeigt Ihnen anhand einer einzigartigen Sammlung verschiedenster Exponate die enormen Veränderungen in diesem Bereich und begleitet Sie auf Ihrem Weg zur Zukunft, dem Cybathlon. Ihre Vielfalt widerspiegelt die historische und technologische Entwicklung diverser Hilfsmittel und Sportgeräte im Bereich Behinderung. Lassen Sie sich mit einer einmaligen Betreuung von paralympischen Athletinnen und Athleten durch das spannende Museum führen. Nutzen Sie die Gelegenheit Unbekanntes zu entdecken und lassen Sie sich begeistern."

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