The SHAP Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure - as anyone might know - is an ill devised test for the purpose of prosthetic hand testing inasmuch as real prostheses used for actual jobs and tasks are concerned [link].
As we shall see right from the outset, a clear understanding of the problem at hand (what constitutes a useful test for bi manual activities?) is crucial. And I should know because of activities that leave any "extreme load" prosthesis far behind:
- IKEA Pax system (total of over 540 kg materials installed in 2 days) [link] (measurable activity with standard object and defined goal)
- Trimming hedges in direct sun and summer heat at over 37 degrees C [link] (clear task definition, precisely definable tools and physical environment)
- Biking up the Stelvio Pass (highest paved alpine passroad, over 2700 meters above sea level) [link] (very standardized task, suitable for competitive bike races as well)
- ah, search this site yourself, will you; there is a sitemap [link] or at least read through all the way to the bottom here
The Cybathlon 2016 [link] currently is aimed towards using the SHAP with the goal to push the development of "bionic" lookalike prostheses, that is, to push development not of actually functional prostheses per se, but to promote the overpriced gadget track that so many manufacturers have fallen for recently. A more detailed review can be found here (in German) and here.
Initially, they wrote: "B. SHAP Course ADL -- This course is based on the Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure (SHAP), which incorporates different object shapes and sizes that require the use of different grips (spherical, tripod, power, lateral, tip, extension)" [link].
They amended this in the meantime, but that does not change the fact that the test goal for prosthetic arms is elsewhere altogether.
Thus, we read the very revealing ANSI note (link):
New York, May 16, 2014 - In most athletic competitions, using technology to give yourself a competitive edge over other athletes could get you disqualified. That’s not the case for participants in the Cybathlon, an international athletic event scheduled to be held in Switzerland in October 2016. The event – which will feature athletes with disabilities who make use of prosthetics, exoskeletons, and other assistive devices – will award medals to the winning athletes, known as “pilots,” and to the companies that developed the technologies they used. In the run-up to this unprecedented competition, standards can provide manufacturers and others with useful guidance regarding the safety and effectiveness of the devices used by the event’s athletes. The Cybathlon will feature six different events involving a wide range of technologies and athletic disciplines, including a foot race featuring pilots with leg prostheses. An International Standard developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) can provide prosthetics manufacturers and others with important guidance. ISO 10328:2006, Prosthetics - Structural testing of lower-limb prostheses - Requirements and test methods, includes strength tests for lower-limb prostheses, including above-knee and below-knee devices. The standard was developed by ISO Technical Committee (TC) 168, Prosthetics and orthotics; ASTM International, an American National Standards Institute (ANSI) member and audited designator, serves as the ANSI-accredited U.S. Technical Advisory Group (TAG) administrator to ISO TC 168. The Cybathlon’s planned bicycle race will feature athletes with spinal cord injuries using Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) to pilot their vehicles around the race track. ASTM F2711-08(2012), Standard Test Methods for Bicycle Frames, could provide important support for the manufacturers of the FES bicycles needed for the event. The standard, developed by ASTM International, establishes procedures for testing the structural performance properties of bicycle frames. Another planned event will require participants to maneuver powered wheelchairs backwards and forwards through an obstacle course. The Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive Technology Society of North America (RESNA), an ANSI member and accredited standards developer, has developed an American National Standard that provides important guidance related to the seats used in wheelchairs. ANSI/RESNA WC-3:2013, RESNA American National Standard for Wheelchairs - Volume 3: Wheelchair Seating, is focused on postural support and tissue integrity management assistance for wheelchair users. Perhaps the most unusual event planned for the Cybathlon is the brain-computer interface race, where paralyzed pilots will control vehicles in a computer game with their mind. One promising method of mind-to-computer communication uses electroencephalographs to record electrical brain activity, providing a basis for mind-driven control of computers and other machines. IEC 60601-2-26 Ed. 3.0 b:2012, Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-26: Particular requirements for the basic safety and essential performance of electroencephalographs, provides safety and performance requirements for electroencephalographs in the clinical environment. This standard was developed by International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) TC 62, Electrical equipment in medical practice, Subcommittee (SC) 62D, Electromedical equipment. The U.S. plays a strong leadership role in the work of TC 62, with Dr. Rodolfo Godinez of the United States serving as chair. ANSI member the Advanced Medical Technology Association (AdvaMed) serves as the United States National Committee (USNC)-approved TAG Administrator for IEC TC 62. The U.S. also holds the secretariat duties for SC 62D, which the USNC has delegated to the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI), an ANSI member and accredited standards developer; AAMI also serves as the USNC-approved U.S. TAG Administrator to SC 62D. This exciting event promises to give athletes with disabilities an important new opportunity to showcase their skills while also encouraging the creation and refinement of technologies beneficial to many other persons with disabilities. And when developing the devices that will assist Cybathlon pilots in their athletic feats, participating companies will have an array of helpful standards to draw from. To learn more about the Cybathlon, visit its official site.
Interestingly, the ANSI author does not mention the prosthetic arm / hand race with one single word. Not one word! This in plain American English is as clear a statement as there can be a statement. However, this blog-website here is more verbally explicit.
Instead of just keeping my mouth shut, though, I will critique the attempt of using the SHAP or such, the publicizing, the maneuver so to speak, as there are rather constructive insights to be gained by doing so [link].